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Viser: Blockchain for Distributed Systems Security

Blockchain for Distributed Systems Security, 1. udgave

Blockchain for Distributed Systems Security

Charles A. Kamhoua, Laurent L. Njilla og Sachin Shetty
(2019)
Sprog: Engelsk
IEEE Computer Society Press
1.133,00 kr.
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Detaljer om varen

  • 1. Udgave
  • Hardback: 352 sider
  • Udgiver: IEEE Computer Society Press (April 2019)
  • Forfattere: Charles A. Kamhoua, Laurent L. Njilla og Sachin Shetty
  • ISBN: 9781119519607

AN ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO USING BLOCKCHAIN TO PROVIDE FLEXIBILITY, COST-SAVINGS, AND SECURITY TO DATA MANAGEMENT, DATA ANALYSIS, AND INFORMATION SHARING

Blockchain for Distributed Systems Security contains a description of the properties that underpin the formal foundations of Blockchain technologies and explores the practical issues for deployment in cloud and Internet of Things (IoT) platforms. The authors--noted experts in the field--present security and privacy issues that must be addressed for Blockchain technologies to be adopted for civilian and military domains. The book covers a range of topics including data provenance in cloud storage, secure IoT models, auditing architecture, and empirical validation of permissioned Blockchain platforms.

The book's security and privacy analysis helps with an understanding of the basics of Blockchain and it explores the quantifying impact of the new attack surfaces introduced by Blockchain technologies and platforms. In addition, the book contains relevant and current updates on the topic. This important resource:

  • Provides an overview of Blockchain-based secure data management and storage for cloud and IoT
  • Covers cutting-edge research findings on topics including invariant-based supply chain protection, information sharing framework, and trust worthy information federation
  • Addresses security and privacy concerns in Blockchain in key areas, such as preventing digital currency miners from launching attacks against mining pools, empirical analysis of the attack surface of Blockchain, and more

Written for researchers and experts in computer science and engineering, Blockchain for Distributed Systems Security contains the most recent information and academic research to provide an understanding of the application of Blockchain technology.

Foreword
xiii Preface
xv List of Contributors xix

Part I Introduction to Blockchain 1 1 Introduction
3 Sachin S. Shetty, Laurent Njilla, and Charles A. Kamhoua
1.
1 Blockchain Overview 3
1.
1.
1 Blockchain Building Blocks 5
1.
1.
2 Blockchain Commercial Use Cases 6
1.
1.
3 Blockchain Military Cyber Operations Use Cases 11
1.
1.
4 Blockchain Challenges 13
1.
2 Overview of the Book 16
1.
2.
1
Chapter 2: Distributed Consensus Protocols and Algorithms 16
1.
2.
2
Chapter 3: Overview of Attack Surfaces in Blockchain 17
1.
2.
3
Chapter 4: Data Provenance in Cloud Storage with Blockchain 17
1.
2.
4
Chapter 5: Blockchain-based Solution to Automotive Security and Privacy 18
1.
2.
5
Chapter 6: Blockchain-based Dynamic Key Management for IoT-Transportation Security Protection 19
1.
2.
6
Chapter 7: Blockchain-enabled Information Sharing Framework for Cybersecurity 19
1.
2.
7
Chapter 8: Blockcloud Security Analysis 20
1.
2.
8
Chapter 9: Security and Privacy of Permissioned and Permissionless Blockchain 20
1.
2.
9
Chapter 10: Shocking Public Blockchains'' Memory with Unconfirmed Transactions--New DDoS Attacks and Countermeasures 21
1.
2.
10
Chapter 11: Preventing Digital Currency Miners From Launching Attacks Against Mining Pools by a Reputation-Based Paradigm 21
1.
2.
11
Chapter 12: Private Blockchain Configurations for Improved IoT Security 22
1.
2.
12
Chapter 13: Blockchain Evaluation Platform 22 References 23 2 Distributed Consensus Protocols and Algorithms 25 Yang Xiao, Ning Zhang, Jin Li, Wenjing Lou, and Y. Thomas Hou
2.
1 Introduction
25
2.
2 Fault-tolerant Consensus in a Distributed System 26
2.
2.
1 The System Model 26
2.
2.
2 BFT Consensus 28
2.
2.
3 The OM Algorithm 29
2.
2.
4 Practical Consensus Protocols in Distributed Computing 30
2.
3 The Nakamoto Consensus 37
2.
3.
1 The Consensus Problem 38
2.
3.
2 Network Model 38
2.
3.
3 The Consensus Protocol 39
2.
4 Emerging Blockchain Consensus Algorithms 40
2.
4.
1 Proof of Stake 41
2.
4.
2 BFT-based Consensus 42
2.
4.
3 Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET) 44
2.
4.
4 Ripple 45
2.
5 Evaluation and Comparison 47
2.
6 Summary 47 Acknowledgment 49 References 49 3 Overview of Attack Surfaces in Blockchain 51 Muhammad Saad, Jeffrey Spaulding, Laurent Njilla, Charles A. Kamhoua, DaeHun Nyang, and Aziz Mohaisen
3.
1 Introduction
51
3.
2 Overview of Blockchain and its Operations 53
3.
3 Blockchain Attacks 54
3.
3.
1 Blockchain Fork 54
3.
3.
2 Stale Blocks and Orphaned Blocks 54
3.
3.
3 Countering Blockchain Structure Attacks 55
3.
4 Blockchain''s Peer-to-Peer System 55
3.
4.
1 Selfish Mining 56
3.
4.
2 The 51% Attack 57
3.
4.
3 DNS Attacks 57
3.
4.
4 DDoS Attacks 58
3.
4.
5 Consensus Delay 59
3.
4.
6 Countering Peer-to-Peer Attacks 59
3.
5 Application Oriented Attacks 60
3.
5.
1 Blockchain Ingestion 60
3.
5.
2 Double Spending 60
3.
5.
3 Wallet Theft 61
3.
5.
4 Countering Application Oriented Attacks 61
3.
6 Related Work 61
3.
7 Conclusion and Future Work 62 References 62

Part II Blockchain Solutions for Distributed System Security 67 4 ProvChain: Blockchain-based Cloud Data Provenance 69 Xueping Liang, Sachin S. Shetty, Deepak Tosh, Laurent Njilla, Charles A. Kamhoua, and Kevin Kwiat
4.
1 Introduction
69
4.
2 Background and Related Work 70
4.
2.
1 Data Provenance 70
4.
2.
2 Data Provenance in the Cloud 71
4.
2.
3 Blockchain 73
4.
2.
4 Blockchain and Data Provenance 74
4.
3 ProvChain Architecture 75
4.
3.
1 Architecture Overview 76
4.
3.
2 Preliminaries and Concepts 77
4.
3.
3 Threat Model 78
4.
3.
4 Key Establishment 78
4.
4 ProvChain Implementation 79
4.
4.
1 Provenance Data Collection and Storage 80
4.
4.
2 Provenance Data Validation 83
4.
5 Evaluation 85
4.
5.
1 Summary of ProvChain''s Capabilities 85
4.
5.
2 Performance and Overhead 86
4.
6 Conclusions and Future Work 90 Acknowledgment 91 References 92 5 A Blockchain-based Solution to Automotive Security and Privacy 95 Ali Dorri, Marco Steger, Salil S. Kanhere, and Raja Jurdak
5.
1 Introduction
95
5.
2 An Introduction to Blockchain 98
5.
3 The Proposed Framework 101
5.
4 Applications 103
5.
4.
1 Remote Software Updates 103
5.
4.
2 Insurance 105
5.
4.
3 Electric Vehicles and Smart Charging Services 105
5.
4.
4 Car-sharing Services 106
5.
4.
5 Supply Chain 106
5.
4.
6 Liability 107
5.
5 Evaluation and Discussion 108
5.
5.
1 Security and Privacy Analysis 108
5.
5.
2 Performance Evaluation 109
5.
6 Related Works 112
5.
7 Conclusion 113 References 114 6 Blockchain-based Dynamic Key Management for IoT-Transportation Security Protection 117 Ao Lei, Yue Cao, Shihan Bao, Philip Asuquom, Haitham Cruickshank, and Zhili Sun
6.
1 Introduction
117
6.
2 Use Case 119
6.
2.
1 Message Handover in VCS 120
6.
3 Blockchain-based Dynamic Key Management Scheme 124
6.
4 Dynamic Transaction Collection Algorithm 125
6.
4.
1 Transaction Format 125
6.
4.
2 Block Format 127
6.
5 Time Composition 128
6.
5.
1 Dynamic Transaction Collection Algorithm 129
6.
6 Performance Evaluation 130
6.
6.
1 Experimental Assumptions and Setup 130
6.
6.
2 Processing Time of Cryptographic Schemes 132
6.
6.
3 Handover Time 133
6.
6.
4 Performance of the Dynamic Transaction Collection Algorithm 135
6.
7 Conclusion and Future Work 138 References 140 7 Blockchain-enabled Information Sharing Framework for Cybersecurity 143 Abdulhamid Adebayo, Danda B. Rawat, Laurent Njilla, and Charles A. Kamhoua
7.
1 Introduction
143
7.
2 The BIS Framework 145
7.
3 Transactions on BIS 146
7.
4 Cyberattack Detection and Information Sharing 147
7.
5 Cross-group Attack Game in Blockchain-based BIS Framework: One-way Attack 149
7.
6 Cross-group Attack Game in Blockchain-based BIS Framework: Two-way Attack 151
7.
7 Stackelberg Game for Cyberattack and Defense Analysis 152
7.
8 Conclusion 156 References 157

Part III Blockchain Security 159 8 Blockcloud Security Analysis 161 Deepak Tosh, Sachin S. Shetty, Xueping Liang, Laurent Njilla, Charles A. Kamhoua, and Kevin Kwiat
8.
1 Introduction
161
8.
2 Blockchain Consensus Mechanisms 163
8.
2.
1 Proof-of-Work (PoW) Consensus 164
8.
2.
2 Proof-of-Stake (PoS) Consensus 165
8.
2.
3 Proof-of-Activity (PoA) Consensus 167
8.
2.
4 Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) Consensus 168
8.
2.
5 Proof-of-Elapsed-Time (PoET) Consensus 169
8.
2.
6 Proof-of-Luck (PoL) Consensus 170
8.
2.
7 Proof-of-Space (PoSpace) Consensus 170
8.
3 Blockchain Cloud and Associated Vulnerabilities 171
8.
3.
1 Blockchain and Cloud Security 171
8.
3.
2 Blockchain Cloud Vulnerabilities 174
8.
4 System Model 179
8.
5 Augmenting with Extra Hash Power 180
8.
6 Disruptive Attack Strategy Analysis 181
8.
6.
1 Proportional Reward 181
8.
6.
2 Pay-per-last N-shares (PPLNS) Reward 184
8.
7 Simulation Results and Discussion 187
8.
8 Conclusions and Future Directions 188 Acknowledgment 190 References 190 9 Permissioned and Permissionless Blockchains 193 Andrew Miller
9.
1 Introduction
193
9.
2 On Choosing Your Peers Wisely 194
9.
3 Committee Election Mechanisms 196
9.
4 Privacy in Permissioned and Permissionless Blockchains 199
9.
5 Conclusion 201 References 202 10 Shocking Blockchain''s Memory with Unconfirmed Transactions: New DDoS Attacks and Countermeasures 205 Muhammad Saad, Laurent Njilla, Charles A. Kamhoua, Kevin Kwiat, and Aziz Mohaisen
10.
1 Introduction
205
10.
2 Related Work 207
10.
3 An Overview of Blockchain and Lifecycle 208
10.
3.
1 DDoS Attack on Mempools 210
10.
3.
2 Data Collection for Evaluation 210
10.
4 Threat Model 211
10.
5 Attack Procedure 212
10.
5.
1 The Distribution Phase 214
10.
5.
2 The Attack Phase 214
10.
5.
3 Attack Cost 214
10.
6 Countering the Mempool Attack 215
10.
6.
1 Fee-based Mempool Design 216
10.
6.
2 Age-based Countermeasures 221
10.
7 Experiment and Results 224
10.
8 Conclusion 227 References 227 11 Preventing Digital Currency Miners from Launching Attacks Against Mining Pools Using a Reputation-based Paradigm 233 Mehrdad Nojoumian, Arash Golchubian, Laurent Njilla, Kevin Kwiat, and Charles A. Kamhoua
11.
1 Introduction
233
11.
2 Preliminaries 234
11.
2.
1 Digital Currencies: Terminologies and Mechanics 234
11.
2.
2 Game Theory: Basic Notions and Definitions 235
11.
3 Literature Review 236
11.
4 Reputation-based Mining Model and Setting 238
11.
5 Mining in a Reputation-based Model 240
11.
5.
1 Prevention of the Re-entry Attack 240
11.
5.
2 Technical Discussion on Detection Mechanisms 241
11.
5.
3 Colluding Miner''s Dilemma 243
11.
5.
4 Repeated Mining Game 244
11.
5.
5 Colluding Miners'' Preferences 245
11.
5.
6 Colluding Miners'' Utilities 245
11.
6 Evaluation of Our Model Using Game-theoretical Analyses 246
11.
7 Concluding Remarks 248 Acknowledgment 249 Refe
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