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Viser: Programmable Logic Controllers - A Practical Approach to IEC 61131-3 Using CoDeSys

Programmable Logic Controllers - A Practical Approach to IEC 61131-3 Using CoDeSys

Programmable Logic Controllers

A Practical Approach to IEC 61131-3 Using CoDeSys
Dag H. Hanssen
(2015)
Sprog: Engelsk
John Wiley & Sons, Limited
829,00 kr. 746,10 kr.
På lager, Bestil nu og få den leveret
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Detaljer Om Varen

  • Hardback: 416 sider
  • Udgiver: John Wiley & Sons, Limited (November 2015)
  • ISBN: 9781118949245

Widely used across industrial and manufacturing automation, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) perform a broad range of electromechanical tasks with multiple input and output arrangements, designed specifically to cope in severe environmental conditions such as automotive and chemical plants.

Programmable Logic Controllers: A Practical Approach using CoDeSys is a hands-on guide to rapidly gain proficiency in the development and operation of PLCs based on the IEC 61131-3 standard. Using the freely-available* software tool CoDeSys, which is widely used in industrial design automation projects, the author takes a highly practical approach to PLC design using real-world examples. The design tool, CoDeSys, also features a built in simulator/soft PLC enabling the reader to undertake exercises and test the examples.

Key features: Introduces to programming techniques using IEC 61131-3 guidelines in the five PLC-recognised programming languages. Focuses on a methodical approach to programming, based on Boolean algebra, flowcharts, sequence diagrams and state-diagrams. Contains a useful methodology to solve problems, develop a structured code and document the programming code. Covers I/O like typical sensors, signals, signal formats, noise and cabling. Features Power Point slides covering all topics, example programs and solutions to end-of-chapter exercises via companion website.

No prior knowledge of programming PLCs is assumed making this text ideally suited to electronics engineering students pursuing a career in electronic design automation. Experienced PLC users in all fields of manufacturing will discover new possibilities and gain useful tips for more efficient and structured programming.

* Register at www.codesys.com

www.wiley.com/go/hanssen/logiccontrollers

Preface
xiv

Part one Hardware 1 1 About PLCs 3
1.
1 History 4
1.
1.
1 More Recent Developments 6
1.
2 Structure 7
1.
2.
1 Inputs and Outputs 10
1.
3 PLC Operation 13
1.
3.
1 Process Knowledge 14
1.
3.
2 Standard Operations 16
1.
3.
3 Cyclic, Freewheeling, or Event]Controlled Execution 18
1.
4 Test Problems 19 2 Digital Signals and Digital Inputs and Outputs 20
2.
1 Introduction
20
2.
2 Terminology 21
2.
2.
1 Discrete, Digital, Logical, and Binary 21
2.
2.
2 Sensors, Transducers, and Transmitters 22
2.
3 Switches 24
2.
3.
1 Limit Switches 24
2.
3.
2 Safety Devices 24
2.
3.
3 Magnetic Switches 25
2.
4 Logical Sensors 26
2.
4.
1 Inductive Sensors 27
2.
4.
2 Capacitive Sensors 29
2.
4.
3 Photocells 30
2.
4.
4 Ultrasonic Sensors 33
2.
4.
5 Rotating Sensors (Encoders) 34
2.
4.
6 Other Detection Principles and Sensors 37
2.
5 Connection of Logical Sensors 39
2.
5.
1 Sink/Source 41
2.
5.
2 Selecting a Sensor with the Proper Type of Output 43
2.
6 Properties of Discrete Inputs 44
2.
7 Discrete Actuators 45
2.
7.
1 Relays and Contactors 46
2.
7.
2 Solenoids and Magnetic Valves 47
2.
7.
3 Transistor Outputs versus Relay Outputs 49
2.
8 Test Problems 50 3 Analog Signals and Analog I/O 52
3.
1 Introduction
52
3.
2 Digitalization of Analog Signals 53
3.
2.
1 Filtering 53
3.
2.
2 A/D Conversion 55
3.
3 Analog Instrumentation 58
3.
3.
1 About Sensors 58
3.
3.
2 Standard Signal Formats 59
3.
3.
3 On the 4-20 mA Standard 59
3.
3.
4 Some Other Properties of Sensors 61
3.
4 Temperature Sensors 61
3.
4.
1 Thermocouple 61
3.
4.
2 PT100/NI1000 62
3.
4.
3 Thermistors 64
3.
5 Connection 64
3.
5.
1 About Noise, Loss, and Cabling 64
3.
5.
2 Connecting Sensors 67
3.
5.
3 Connection of a PT100 (RTD) 68
3.
5.
4 Connecting Thermocouples 72
3.
6 Properties of Analog Input Modules 72
3.
6.
1 Measurement Ranges and Digitizing: Resolution 72
3.
6.
2 Important Properties and Parameters 74
3.
7 Analog Output Modules and Standard Signal Formats 75
3.
8 Test Problems 76

Part two Methodic 79 4 Structured Design 81
4.
1 Introduction
81
4.
2 Number Systems 82
4.
2.
1 The Decimal Number Systems 82
4.
2.
2 The Binary Number System 82
4.
2.
3 The Hexadecimal Number System 83
4.
2.
4 Binary]Coded Decimal Numbers 85
4.
2.
5 Conversion between Number Systems 86
4.
3 Digital Logic 87
4.
4 Boolean Design 91
4.
4.
1 Logical Functional Expressions 91
4.
4.
2 Boolean Algebra 93
4.
5 Sequential Design 97
4.
5.
1 Flowchart 97
4.
5.
2 Example: Flowchart for Mixing Process 99
4.
5.
3 Example: Flowchart for an Automated Packaging Line 101
4.
5.
4 Sequence Diagrams 107
4.
5.
5 Example: Sequence Diagram for the Mixing Process 110
4.
5.
6 Example: Batch Process 112
4.
6 State]Based Design 113
4.
6.
1 Why Use State Diagrams? 114
4.
6.
2 State Diagrams 114
4.
6.
3 Example: Batch Process 117
4.
6.
4 Example: Level Process 118
4.
6.
5 Example: Packing Facility for Apples 121
4.
7 Summary 124
4.
8 Test Problems 125

Part three IEC 61131]3 131 5 Introduction to Programming and IEC 61131]3 133
5.
1 Introduction
133
5.
1.
1 Weaknesses in Traditional PLCs 134
5.
1.
2 Improvements with IEC 61131]3 136
5.
1.
3 On Implementation of the Standard 137
5.
2 Brief Presentation of the Languages 138
5.
2.
1 ST 138
5.
2.
2 FBD 138
5.
2.
3 LD 139
5.
2.
4 IL 139
5.
2.
5 SFC 141
5.
3 Program Structure in IEC 61131]3 141
5.
3.
1 Example of a Configuration 145
5.
4 Program Processing 146
5.
4.
1 Development of Programming Languages 146
5.
4.
2 From Source Code to Machine Code 147
5.
5 Test Problems 151 6 IEC 61131]3: Common Language Elements 152
6.
1 Introduction
152
6.
2 Identifiers, Keywords, and Comments 153
6.
2.
1 Identifiers 153
6.
2.
2 Keywords 154
6.
2.
3 Comments 154
6.
3 About Variables and Data Types 156
6.
4 Pragmas and Literals 156
6.
4.
1 Literal 157
6.
5 Data Types 158
6.
5.
1 Numerical and Binary Data Types 158
6.
5.
2 Data Types for Time and Duration 161
6.
5.
3 Text Strings 163
6.
5.
4 Generic Data Types 164
6.
5.
5 User]Defined Data Types 166
6.
6 Variables 169
6.
6.
1 Conventional Addressing 170
6.
6.
2 Declaration of Variables with IEC 61131]3 171
6.
6.
3 Local Versus Global Variables 174
6.
6.
4 Input and Output Variables 175
6.
6.
5 Other Variable Types 176
6.
7 Direct Addressing 176
6.
7.
1 Addressing Structure 176
6.
7.
2 I/O]Addressing 178
6.
8 Variable versus I/O]Addresses 179
6.
8.
1 Unspecified I/O]Addresses 179
6.
9 Declaration of Multielement Variables 180
6.
9.
1 Arrays 181
6.
9.
2 Data Structures 182
6.
10 Test Problems 184 7 Functions 187
7.
1 Introduction
187
7.
2 On Functions 188
7.
3 Standard Functions 189
7.
3.
1 Assignment 190
7.
4 Boolean Operations 191
7.
5 Arithmetic Functions 192
7.
5.
1 Overflow 193
7.
6 Comparison 194
7.
7 Numerical Operations 195
7.
7.
1 Priority of Execution 196
7.
8 Selection 197
7.
9 Type Conversion 197
7.
10 Bit]String Functions 199
7.
11 Text]String Functions 200
7.
12 Defining New Functions 202
7.
13 EN/ENO 203
7.
14 Test Problems 204 8 Function Blocks 206
8.
1 Introduction
206
8.
1.
1 The Standard''s FBs 207
8.
2 Declaring and Calling FBs 207
8.
3 FBs for Flank Detection 208
8.
4 Bistable Elements 209
8.
5 Timers 210
8.
6 Counters 211
8.
6.
1 Up]Counter 212
8.
6.
2 Down]Counter 212
8.
6.
3 Up/Down]Counter 212
8.
7 Defining New FBs 213
8.
7.
1 Encapsulation of Code 214
8.
7.
2 Other Nonstandardized FBs 216
8.
8 Programs 217
8.
8.
1 Program Calls 218
8.
8.
2 Execution Control 219
8.
9 Test Problems 220

Part four Programming 221 9 Ladder Diagram (LD) 223
9.
1 Introduction
223
9.
2 Program Structure 224
9.
2.
1 Contacts and Conditions 225
9.
2.
2 Coils and Actions 226
9.
2.
3 Graphical Elements: An Overview 227
9.
3 Boolean Operations 227
9.
3.
1 AND/OR]Conditions 227
9.
3.
2 Set/Reset Coils 230
9.
3.
3 Edge Detecting Contacts 233
9.
3.
4 Example: Control of a Mixing Process 234
9.
4 Rules for Execution 237
9.
4.
1 One Output: Several Conditions 237
9.
4.
2 The Importance of the Order of Execution 238
9.
4.
3 Labels and Jumps 239
9.
5 Use of Standard Functions in LD 240
9.
6 Development and Use of FBs in LD 242
9.
7 Structured Programming in LD 244
9.
7.
1 Flowchart versus RS]Based LD Code 248
9.
7.
2 State Diagrams versus RS]Based LD Code 253
9.
8 Summary 259
9.
9 Test Problems 260 10 Function Block Diagram (FBD) 262
10.
1 Introduction
262
10.
2 Program Structure 263
10.
2.
1 Concepts 264
10.
3 Execution Order and Loops 264
10.
3.
1 Labels and Jumps 265
10.
4 User]Defined Functions and FBs 266
10.
5 Integer Division 268
10.
6 Sequential Programming with FBD 271
10.
7 Test Problems 273 11 Structured Text (ST) 278
11.
1 Introduction
278
11.
2 ST in General 279
11.
2.
1 Program Structure 280
11.
3 Standard Functions and Operators 281
11.
3.
1 Assignment 282
11.
4 Calling FBs 283
11.
4.
1 Flank Detection and Memories 284
11.
4.
2 Timers 287
11.
4.
3 Counters 288
11.
5 IF Statements 288
11.
6 CASE Statements 290
11.
7 ST Code Based upon State Diagrams 292
11.
7.
1 Example: Code for the Level Process 295
11.
8 Loops 298
11.
8.
1 WHILE DO. END_WHILE 298
11.
8.
2 FOR END_FOR 299
11.
8.
3 REPEAT END_REPEAT 300
11.
8.
4 The EXIT Instruction 300
11.
9 Example: Defining and Calling Functions 301
11.
10 Test Problems 302 12 Sequential Function Chart (SFC) 306
12.
1 Introduction
306
12.
1.
1 SFC in General 307
12.
2 Structure and Graphics 307
12.
2.
1 Overview: Graphic Symbols 309
12.
2.
2 Alternative Branches 309
12.
2.
3 Parallel Branches 311
12.
3 Steps 312
12.
3.
1 Step Addresses 313
12.
3.
2 SFC in Text Form (for Those Specially Interested. ) 314
12.
4 Transitions 314
12.
4.
1 Alternative Definition of Transitions 315
12.
5 Actions 317
12.
5.
1 Action Types 318
12.
5.
2 Action Control 319
12.
5.
3 Alternative Declaration and Use of Actions 321
12.
6 Control of Diagram Execution 322
12.
7 Good Design Technique 323
12.
8 Test Problems 326 13 Examples 331
13.
1 Example
1: PID Controller Function Block: Structured Text 331
13.
2 Example
2: Sampling: SFC 333
13.
2.
1 List of Variables 334
13.
2.
2 Possible Solution 334
13.
3 Example
3: Product Control: SFC 337
13.
3.
1 Functional Description 338
13.
3.
2 List of Variables 338
13.
3.
3 Possible Solution 339
13.
4 Example
4: Automatic Feeder: ST/SFC/FBD 342
13.
4.
1 Planning and Structuring 344
13.
4.
2 Alternative
1: SFC 345
13.
4.
3 Alternative
2: ST/FBD 347 Part FIVE Implementation 351 14 CoDeSys
2.
3
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