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Viser: Wind Energy Essentials - Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts

Wind Energy Essentials - Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts

Wind Energy Essentials

Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts
Andrew Swift og Richard P. Walker
(2015)
Sprog: Engelsk
John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
1.315,00 kr.
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Detaljer Om Varen

  • Hardback: 512 sider
  • Udgiver: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated (April 2015)
  • Forfattere: Andrew Swift og Richard P. Walker
  • ISBN: 9781118877890

Examines the possible societal impacts of wind energy projects and explains the potential issues faced when siting, constructing, and operating a wind energy project.

This book begins with a history of wind power and the social impacts of both electricity and wind power from a historical perspective, a discussion of basic electrical terms, and a primer on the conversion of power in the wind to electricity. Much of the second half of the book is devoted to comparing wind energy to other forms of electric generation, both renewable and non-renewable sources. In order to have a true understanding of the impact of wind energy on society, one also has to have a thorough understanding of the impacts that other sources of electric generation have, such as fossil-fuelled plants or nuclear power plants. The comparison of electric generation sources includes a review of how such sources are typically utilized within the electric system, as well as the economic factors and environmental considerations that affect which resources utilities or operators of electric grids have to take into account. The authors conclude with a discussion of energy policies in the U.S., individual states, and foreign nations, how these policies influence the use of renewable energy, and what our future may hold in terms of energy supply and demand. Some highlights of this book are:

  • Discusses the wind energy impacts on the environment, local economy, electric utilities, individuals and communities
  • Provides a visual explanation of wind energy principles through tables, graphs, maps, illustrations and photographs
  • Offers a comprehensive overview of the issues associated with the creation and use of wind energy
  • Models chapters around an existing university curriculum
Spanning the broad range of environmental, financial, policy and other topics that define and determine the relationships between wind energy technology and our energy-dependent society, Wind Energy Essentials is a resource for students, universities, and the entire wind energy industry.
Preface
xiii Foreword
xv About the Authors xvii Dedication and Acknowledgments
xix 1 Impacts of Energy and Electricity on Society 1
1.
1 What are "Social and Environmental Impacts"? 1
1.
2 Early Wind Power Innovation and Discovery 2
1.
3 Impact of Electricity on Society 20
1.
4 History of Wind Energy for Electricity Production 28
1.
5 Renewables and Electrification in Third World Countries 32
1.
6 The Nexus of Wind, Water, and Electricity 32 References 32 2 The Basics of Electricity 34
2.
1 Units of Electrical Measurement 34
2.
2 Descriptions of Common Electrical Equipment 36
2.
3 Types of Companies or Business Units within the Electric Industry 39
2.
4 Frequently Asked Questions 40 Reference 47 3 Overview of Wind Energy and Other Sources of Electricity 48
3.
1 Defining Renewable Energy 48
3.
2 Sources and Uses of Energy 51
3.
3 Growth of Renewable Energy in the United States 53
3.
4 Use of Renewable Energy for Electricity Production in the United States 53
3.
5 Growth of Wind Power Capacity in the United States 58
3.
6 Subsidies or Incentives for Wind Energy 59
3.
7 Potential for Increased Use of Wind Energy in the United States 60
3.
8 Wind Resources in the United States 62
3.
9 Overview of Other Sources of Electric Generation in the United States 67 References 70 4 Conversion of Power in the Wind to Electricity 71
4.
1 Wind Power Plants and Wind Turbines 71
4.
2 Atmospheric Science 85
4.
3 Wind Statistics 94 5 The Wind Energy Development Process 100
5.
1 Requirements for an Economically Viable Wind Energy Project 100
5.
2 Other Factors that Contribute to the Success of a Wind Energy Project 103
5.
3 Potential "Fatal Flaws" 104
5.
4 Coordination of the Wind Energy Project Development Process 105
5.
5 Timeline for Developing a Wind Energy Project 106
5.
6 Major Steps in the Early Stage Wind Project Development Process 107
5.
7 Major Steps in Latter Stage Wind Energy Project Development 111
5.
8 Final Steps in Developing a Wind Energy Project 113
5.
9 Conclusions 114 References 114 6 Overview of Issues Faced by Wind Energy 115
6.
1 The Need to Understand and Respond 115
6.
2 Community Relationships and Public Outreach 117
6.
3 General Categorization of Issues 119 Reference 121 7 Wind and Wildlife: Siting Issues and Challenges 122
7.
1 Overview of Wildlife-Related Issues Faced by the Wind Industry 122
7.
2 State and Federal Regulations Relevant to Wind Development''s Impact on Wildlife 123
7.
3 USFWS Guidelines for Wind Development 124
7.
4 Best Management Practices for Wind Energy Development Included as
Chapter 7 of the USFWS Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines 125
7.
5 Bird De aths Due to Collisions with Wind Turbine Blades 128
7.
6 Wind Generation Wildlife Issues Not Limited to Avian Collisions 131
7.
7 Avian Species of Concern 133
7.
8 Bat Deaths due to Wind Energy Development 136
7.
9 Organizations Studying Ways to Minimize Effects of Wind Development on Birds and Other Wildlife 140
7.
10 Conclusions 141 References 141 8 Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues 145
8.
1 Overview of Environmental and Ecological Impacts on Humans 145
8.
2 Wind Turbine Noise: Key Terms 146
8.
3 Estimates of Noise from Wind Turbines 147
8.
4 Potential Health Effects of Audible or Subaudible Noise from Wind Turbines 149
8.
5 Noise Ordinances 150
8.
6 Technological Advances that can Reduce Turbine Noise 151
8.
7 Siting Procedures for Noise Mitigation 152
8.
8 Shadow Flicker 153
8.
9 Mitigation of Shadow Flicker 154
8.
10 Electric and Magnetic Fields 155
8.
11 Mitigating EMF Exposure from Wind Projects 156
8.
12 Solid and Hazardous Wastes 156
8.
13 Mitigation of Solid and Hazardous Waste Issues 157
8.
14 Conclusions 158 References 158 9 Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public and Workforce Safety Issues 160
9.
1 Overview of Workforce and Public Safety Issues 160
9.
2 Things Can Go Wrong Anytime Humans are Involved (in any Industry) 161
9.
3 Ice Shedding 161
9.
4 Mitigating Ice Shedding Issues 163
9.
5 Blade Throw 163
9.
6 Mitigating Blade Throw Issues 164
9.
7 Risk of Fire 164
9.
8 Mitigating Risk of Fire 165
9.
9 Lightning 165
9.
10 Other Weather Emergencies: Hurricanes, Tornadoes, and Hail 167
9.
11 The Impact of Wind Energy on Vehicular Traffic 167
9.
12 Planning for and Addressing Transportation Issues 168
9.
13 Electrical and Pipeline Safety: Height, Depth, and Location of Electric Lines 171
9.
14 Other Wind Energy Industry Workforce Safety Issues 171
9.
15 Conclusions 174 References 174 10 Wind Energy''s Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications 175
10.
1 Impact of Wind Energy on Military and Civilian Aviation 175
10.
2 Regulatory Requirements and FAA Permitting Process 176
10.
3 FAA Screening Tools 177
10.
4 FAA Requirements for Marking or Lighting of Obstructions 181
10.
5 Marking and/or Lighting of Meteorological Towers 184
10.
6 Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on Aviation or Navigation Radar 185
10.
7 Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on Weather Radar 189
10.
8 Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on Telecommunications 190 References 192 11 Other Environmental Issues of Wind Energy Development: Aesthetics, Cultural Resources, Land Use Compatibility, Water Resources, and Site Restoration 194
11.
1 Aesthetic Issues: Wind Energy''s Impact on Scenery or Viewshed 194
11.
2 Mitigating Aesthetic Impacts and Issues 202
11.
3 Impact of Wind Energy on Cultural Resources 202
11.
4 Compatibility of Wind Energy Development with Existing Land Use 204
11.
5 Impact of Wind Energy Development on Water Resources 213
11.
6 Removal of Retired Equipment and Restoration of Property 215
11.
7 Best Management Practices for Decommissioning of Wind Energy Projects (from USFWS Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines ), 216 References 217 12 Impact of Wind Energy on the Electric Grid 218
12.
1 Overview of Wind Integration Issues 218
12.
2 The Electric Grid 219
12.
3 Wind Penetration 221
12.
4 Issues that Arise due to Integration of Wind Energy 222
12.
5 Capability of Wind Turbines to Meet Applicable Standards for Grid Interconnection 230
12.
6 Conclusions 232 References 233 13 Non Wind Renewable Energy Sources Used to Meet Electricity Needs 234
13.
1 Comparing Sources of Electric Generation: Attributes That Will Be Considered 234
13.
2 Renewable Energy Generation Resources in the United States 235
13.
3 Hydroelectric Generation 235
13.
4 Solar Energy 238
13.
5 Biomass Energy 243
13.
6 Municipal Solid Waste 245
13.
7 Landfill Gas 246
13.
8 Geothermal Energy 248
13.
9 Energy from the Ocean: Tidal Power and Wave Power 250
13.
10 Hydrogen 253 References 255 14 Nonrenewable Energy Sources Used to Meet Electricity Needs 256
14.
1 Comparing Sources of Electric Generation 256
14.
2 Processes or Technologies Used to Produce Electricity 257
14.
3 Comparing Efficiencies of Generation Technologies 259
14.
4 Generation Resources in the United States 261
14.
5 Nuclear Energy 261
14.
6 Coal-Fired Generation 266
14.
7 Natural Gas-Fired Generation 270
14.
8 Oil-Fired Generation 273
14.
9 Methane Hydrates 274 References 276 15 Energy Efficiency and Conservation: "Less is More" and "Doing Without" 277
15.
1 Overview 277
15.
2 Concepts 278
15.
3 Consumer Efficiency and DSM 283
15.
4 Generation and Transmission Efficiency 288
15.
5 Conserving Resources and Reducing Emissions 292
15.
6 Positive Attributes of Energy Efficiency and Conservation 294
15.
7 Limits to Electric Energy Efficiency and Conservation 294 References 297 16 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 298
16.
1 Overview 298
16.
2 The Greenhouse Effect 298
16.
3 Fossil Fuels and their Contribution to GHG Levels 301
16.
4 International Political and Economic Issues of Controlling GHG Emissions 306
16.
5 Public Opinion and Policy 306
16.
6 Potential Effects of Global Climate Change 310
16.
7 Methods and Costs of Mitigation 312
16.
8 Conclusions 313 References 313 17 Siting and Permitting of Electric Generation Projects 315
17.
1 Federal Law, Regulations, and Permitting Requirements 315
17.
2 Federal Permits, Approvals, or Consultations 320
17.
3 State and Local Permitting 322
17.
4 Public Opposition to Power Plants and Transmission Lines 324
17.
5 Examples of Renewable Energy Projects Experiencing Difficulty in Obtaining Required Permits or Approvals 325
17.
6 Examples of Fossil-Fueled or Nuclear Generation Projects Experiencing Difficulty in Obtaining Required Permits or Approvals 326
17.
7 Transmission Line Projects Experiencing Difficulty in Obtaining Required Permits or Approvals 329
17.
8 Checklist for Governmental Approvals 330 References 331 18 Economics of Electricity Generation 333
18.
1 Sources of Electricity Generation 333
18.
2 Electrical Demand versus Supply 334
18.
3 Marginal Cost of Electricity/Energy Value 335 <
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