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Viser: Vertebrate Life

Vertebrate Life, 11. udgave

Vertebrate Life

Harvey Pough, William E. Bemis, Betty Anne McGuire og Christine M. Janis
(2022)
Sprog: Engelsk
Oxford University Press, Incorporated
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  • 11. Udgave
  • Hardback: 656 sider
  • Udgiver: Oxford University Press, Incorporated (Maj 2022)
  • Forfattere: Harvey Pough, William E. Bemis, Betty Anne McGuire og Christine M. Janis
  • ISBN: 9780197558621
Vertebrate Life distills the necessary information from vertebrate anatomy, physiology, ecology, and behavioral studies and then helps students see important connections across levels of biological scale. The result is students come to understand how organisms function effectively in theirenvironments and how lineages of organisms change through evolutionary time. Processing complex detailed information about expansive phylogenies and diverse anatomies can be difficult for even the most motivated students, and Vertebrate Life addresses this challenge by combiningappropriately-detailed, clearly-written text with outstanding phylogenies and figures, making it a thorough and engaging reference for students and instructors alike. The text's impressive illustration program helps students visualize complex concepts, allowing them to parse difficult anatomicalinformation. The 11th edition will have an upgraded illustration program with several new and revised figures, including layered figures presented in the new enhanced eBook.
Preface
xv
Chapter 1 Diversity, Classification, and Evolution of Vertebrates
1.
1 The Vertebrate Story --Binominal nomenclature --Extant vertebrate groups
1.
2 Phylogenetic Systematics
1.
3 Applying Phylogenetic Criteria --Evaluating possible phylogenies --Molecules and morphology --The problem of dating --Dagger (+) convention adopted in this book
1.
4 Using Phylogenetic Trees --Extant phylogenetic brackets --Paraphyly --Crown and stem groups
1.
5 Genetic Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change --Phenotypes and fitness --Developmental regulatory genes
1.
6 Epigenetic Effects
1.
7 Earth History and Vertebrate Evolution
Chapter 2 What Is a Vertebrate??
2.
1 Vertebrates in Relation to Other Animals?
2.
2 Characteristics of Chordates? --Chordate origins and evolution? --Extant nonvertebrate chordates?
2.
3 What Distinguishes a Vertebrate??
2.
4 Vertebrate Embryonic Development? --Development of the body? --Development of the pharyngeal region? --Development of the brain? --Other neurogenic tissues of vertebrates?
2.
5 Vertebrate Tissues? --Adult tissue types --Mineralized tissues
2.
6 Vertebrate Organ Systems --Integumentary system --Skeletal system --Muscular system --Nervous system and sense organs --Endocrine system --Respiratory system --Circulatory system --Digestive system --Excretory and reproductive systems
Chapter 3 Jawless Vertebrates and the Origin of Gnathostomes
3.
1 Earliest Evidence of Vertebrates --Enigmas: +Conodonts and +Tullimonstrum ---Early mineralized tissues --Environment of early vertebrate evolution
3.
2 Cyclostomes: Extant Jawless Vertebrate --Characters of cyclostomes --Hagfishes: Myxiniformes --Lampreys: Petromyzontiformes
3.
3 Jawless Osteognathostomes
3.
4 Gnathostome Body Plan --Gnathostome skeletons --What about soft anatomical features?
3.
5 Origin of Jaws --Hypotheses of jaw origins --Importance of the nose --Selective value of jaws
3.
6 Origin of Paired Appendages --Fin development and the lateral somitic frontier --Advantages of fins
3.
7 Extinct Paleozoic Jawed Fishes
Chapter 4 Living in Water
4.
1 Aquatic Environment --Obtaining oxygen from water using gill --Obtaining oxygen from air using lungs and other respiratory structure --Adjusting buoyancy
4.
2 Sensory World of Aquatic Vertebrates --Vision --Chemosensation: Olfaction and taste --Detecting water displacement --Hearing and equilibrium --Electroreception and electrogenesis
4.
3 Maintaining an Internal Environment --Nitrogenous wastes and kidney --Osmoregulation --Regulation of ions and body fluids
4.
4 Osmoregulation in Different Environments --Marine cartilaginous fishes and coelacanths --Marine teleosts --Freshwater teleosts and lissamphibians --Euryhaline vertebrates
Chapter 5 Geography and Ecology of the Paleozoic
5.
1 Deep Time --The Precambrian world --The Paleozoic
5.
2 Continental Geography --Continental drift and plate tectonics --Shifting continents of the Paleozoic --Shifting continents and changing climates
5.
3 Paleozoic Climates
5.
4 Paleozoic Ecosystems --Aquatic life --Terrestrial flora --Terrestrial fauna
5.
5 Extinctions
Chapter 6 Origin and Radiation of Chondrichthyans
6.
1 Acanthodii
6.
2 Chondrichthyes --Habitats and diversity --Placoid scales --Cartilaginous skeleton --Teeth and tooth plates --Jaws and jaw suspension --Internal fertilization and claspers --Distinctive soft tissue and physiological features
6.
3 Euchondrocephali and Chimaeriformes --Biology of extant Chimaeriformes
6.
4 Elasmobranchii, Euselachii, and Neoselachii --Selachii: Sharks --Batomorphi: Skates and rays
6.
5 Biology of Neoselachii --Feeding --Bioluminescence and biofluorescence ---Hypoxia and the epaulette shark --Endothermal heterothermy --Swimming --Reproduction --Elasmobranch brains --Social networks and migration in sand tiger sharks
6.
6 Declining Elasmobranch Populations --Conservation and sawfishes --Threats to chondrichthyans --Vulnerabilities of chondrichthyans --Ecological impacts of shark population declines --Policies to protect sharks
Chapter 7 Origin of Osteichthyes and Radiation of Actinopterygian
7.
1 Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, and Sarcopterygi --Osteichthyan character --Fin adaptations --Other differences between actinopterygians and sarcopterygians
7.
2 Actinopterygii: Basal Group --Polypteriformes --Acipenseriformes --Neopterygii: Holostei --Neopterygii: Teleoste
7.
3 Characters of Teleostei
7.
4 Teleostei: Basal Groups --Elopomorpha --Osteoglossomorpha --Otocephala --Basal euteleosts
7.
5 Teleostei: Acanthopterygii --Basal acanthopterygians --Percomorph
7.
6 Swimming and Hydrodynamics --Generating forward thrust --Modes of locomotion --Speed and drag --Steering, stopping, and staying in place
7.
7 Reproduction and Development --Oviparity --Viviparity --Sex change in teleosts
7.
8 Ecology of Marine Teleosts --Black-water diving and larval teleosts --The photic zone and its subdivisions --Coral reef fishes --Pelagic and deep-sea fishes
Chapter 8 Sarcopterygians and the Origin of Tetrapods
8.
1 Phylogenetic Concepts of Tetrapoda and Characters for Sarcopterygii
8.
2 The Miguasha Lagerst?tte and the "Good Fossil Effect"
8.
3 Actinistia --+Onychodontia --Coelacanthiformes
8.
4 Dipnomorpha --+Porolepiformes --Dipnoi ?
8.
5 Tetrapodomorpha --Basal tetrapodomorphs --Tetrapods
8.
6 Moving onto Land --How did fins become limbs? --Body support and locomotion of early tetrapods
8.
7 Paleoecology of Devonian Tetrapodomorphs
Chapter 9 Origins of Lissamphibia and Amniota
9.
1 Paleozoic Tetrapods and the Origins of Extant Groups --Temnospondyli --Origins of Lissamphibia --Reptiliomorpha and the origin of amniotes --Paleozoic diversification of amniotes
9.
2 Characters of Amniotes --Skeletal characters --The amniotic egg --Other soft-tissue characters of amniotes
9.
3 Diversification of Amniotes --Temporal fenestration: Synapsids and diapsid --Ankle evolution in amniote
Chapter 10 Geography and Ecology of the Mesozoic
10.
1 Continental Geography and Climates --Continental movements --Climate shifts
10.
2 Terrestrial Ecosystems --Flora --Fauna
10.
3 Marine Ecosystems --Faunal composition: Apex predators --Other clades
10.
4 Extinctions --Triassic and Jurassic extinctions --Cretaceous extinctions
Chapter 11 Living on Land
11.
1 Support on Land --Axial skeleton --Axial muscle --Appendicular skeleton --Size and scaling
11.
2 Locomotion
11.
3 Eating
11.
4 Breathing Air
11.
5 Pumping Blood Uphill
11.
6 Sensory Systems --Vision --Hearing and equilibrium --Olfaction
11.
7 Conserving Water in a Dry Environment --Cutaneous water loss --Respiratory water loss --Excretory water loss
Chapter 12 Lissamphibians
12.
1 Diversity of Lissamphibians --Synapomorphies of Lissamphibia --Salamanders --Anurans --Caecilians
12.
2 Life Histories of Lissamphibians --Mating and reproduction in salamanders --Anuran mating and reproduction --Anuran metamorphosis --The ecology of tadpoles --Caecilian reproduction and development
12.
3 Respiration and Circulation --Cutaneous respiration and blood flow --Blood flow in larvae and adults
12.
4 Water Relations --Uptake and storage of water --Cutaneous water loss --Behavioral control of cutaneous water loss
12.
5 Crypsis, Warning Colors, Toxins, and Venoms --Skin glands and toxins --Toxicity and diet --Venomous lissamphibians
12.
6 Why Are Lissamphibians Vanishing? --Chytrid fungi --Synergisms and domino effects
Chapter 13 Synapsids and Sauropsids: Two Ways of Living on the Land
13.
1 Conflicts between Locomotion and Respiration
13.
2 Lungs and Lung Ventilation: Supplying Oxygen to the Blood --Synapsid lungs --Sauropsid lungs
13.
3 Circulatory Systems: Supplying Oxygen to Tissues --Systemic arches of mammals and birds --Hearts with a ventricular septum: Mammals and birds --Hearts without a ventricular septum: Turtles and lepidosaurs --Shunting blood when the heart has a ventricular septum: Crocodylians
13.
4 Getting Rid of Wastes: The Kidneys --Nitrogenous waste products --Nitrogen excretion by synapsids: The mammalian kidney --Nitrogen excretion by sauropsids: Renal and extrarenal routes
Chapter 14 Ectothermy and Endothermy: Two Ways of Regulating Body Temperature
14.
1 Why Regulate Body Temperature?
14.
2 Ectothermal Thermoregulation --Energy exchange and mechanisms of ectothermy --Thermal ecology of ectotherms
14.
3 Endothermal Thermoregulation --Mechanisms of endothermal thermoregulation?
14.
4 Pure Ectot
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