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Viser: Continuous Cover Forestry - Theories, Concepts, and Implementation

Continuous Cover Forestry - Theories, Concepts, and Implementation

Continuous Cover Forestry

Theories, Concepts, and Implementation
Arne Pommerening
(2023)
Sprog: Engelsk
John Wiley & Sons, Limited
946,00 kr.
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  • Hardback: 416 sider
  • Udgiver: John Wiley & Sons, Limited (Oktober 2023)
  • ISBN: 9781119895305

Gain expertise in the development of healthier, more sustainable forests with this indispensable guide

Continuous Cover Forestry (CCF) is an approach to forest management with over a century of history, one which applies ecological principles to the project of developing biologically diverse, structurally complex forests. Long used as the standard forest management method in Central Europe, CCF is generating renewed interest globally for its potential to develop and sustain forests that can withstand climate change impacts, maintain forest biodiversity in the face of major ecological challenges and offer better recreation experience. There is an increasingly urgent need for forest scientists and policymakers to be familiar with the toolkit provided by CCF.

Continuous Cover Forestry: Theories, Concepts, and Implementation provides a thorough, up-to-date introduction to the theory and practice of CCF. Beginning with an overview of the method's history and its foundational principles, the book provides detailed guidance for applying CCF methods to a range of ecological scenarios and forest types. The result is a clear, comprehensive portrait of this increasingly effective set of forestry tools.

Continuous Cover Forestry readers will also find:

  • Case studies throughout showing CCF at work in real-world forests
  • Detailed discussion of topics such as forest structure, transformation, silvicultural systems, training, carbon forestry, conservation and more
  • R code ready to take and apply
  • Simple, adaptable models for deriving quantitative guidelines for CCF woodlands

Continuous Cover Forestry is ideal for scholars and practitioners of forest science, forest ecology, conservation, and environmental management, as well as policymakers dealing with forestry or climate policy.

Foreword xiii Preface xv 1 Introduction 1
1.1 When Is a Forest a Forest? 1
1.2 The Nature of Forestry and Forest Management 4
1.3 Silvicultural Regimes and Types of Forest Management 8
1.4 Silvicultural Analysis and Planning 15
1.5 Continuous Cover Forestry - Definitions, Terms and Semi-synonyms 18
1.5.1 Continuity of Woodland Conditions 24
1.5.2 Reliance on Natural Processes, Promoting Vertical and Horizontal Structure 26
1.5.3 Attention to Site Limitations 27
1.5.4 Species, Size and Genetic Diversity 27
1.5.5 Selective Individual-Tree Silviculture 28
1.5.6 Conserving Old Trees, Deadwood, Rare and Endangered Plant and Animal Species 29
1.5.7 Promoting Native Tree Species/Provenances and Broadleaves 29
1.5.8 Environmentally Sensitive Forest Protection, Thinning and Harvesting Operations, Environmentally Sensitive Wildlife Management 31
1.5.9 Establishment and Conservation of Forest Margins, of Other Special Habitats Inside Forests and Networks of Protected Forests 32
1.5.10 In Conclusion 33
1.6 Common Misconceptions Dispelled 34
1.7 The Societies that Shape Us: Contrasting History of Forestry 36
1.8 Ensuring Sustainability: Area Control Versus Size Control 45
1.9 CCF in a Changing World 48
1.10 How to Introduce CCF to a New Region or a Country? 51 2 How Do I get Started with CCF? 56
2.1 Introduction 56
2.2 Identifying Land Suitable for CCF 58
2.2.1 ''Accidents'' that Turn into Flagships 64
2.3 Starting from Scratch - Instant New CCF 68
2.3.1 Bradford-Hutt Plan 75
2.3.2 Anderson Group Selection System 79
2.4 The Mission of Transformation and Conversion 81
2.4.1 Underplanting 88
2.4.1.1 Nest Planting 91
2.4.2 Graduated-Density Thinning (GDT) 94
2.4.3 Variable-Density Thinning (VDT) 98
2.5 Keeping it Going: The Maintenance of CCF 101
2.6 Biological Automation and Rationalisation 101 3 Individual-Based Forest Management 108
3.1 Introduction 108
3.2 Definition and Terms of Individual-Based Forest Management 109
3.3 History of Individual-Based Forest Management 112
3.4 How and When Frame Trees Are Selected 114
3.5 How Frame Trees Are Managed 122
3.6 Individual-Based Forest Management for Restructuring and Transforming Forests 129 4 Forest Structure - The Key to CCF 133
4.1 Introduction 133
4.2 Crown Classes 138
4.3 Mixing Species - But How and When? 141
4.4 Non-spatial Measures of Forest Structure 149
4.4.1 Species Diversity 150
4.4.1.1 Species Richness and Abundance 150
4.4.1.2 Shannon and Simpson Indices 152
4.4.1.3 Species Profile Index 156
4.4.2 Size Diversity 157
4.4.2.1 Size Diversity Based on Tree Stem Diameters 157
4.4.2.2 Size Diversity Based on Tree Heights 172 5 Interacting with Forest Structure 179
5.1 Introduction 179
5.2 Thinnings 181
5.2.1 Thinning Regimes 185
5.2.2 Thinning Type 187
5.2.3 Thinning Intensity 193
5.2.4 Thinning Cycle 196
5.3 Regenerating Forest Stands with Silvicultural Systems 198
5.3.1 Uniform Shelterwood System 205
5.3.1.1 Method 205
5.3.1.2 Ecological and Silvicultural Implications 207
5.3.1.3 Advantages 208
5.3.1.4 Disadvantages/Challenges 208
5.3.1.5 Variants 209
5.3.2 Group System 210
5.3.2.1 Method 210
5.3.2.2 Ecological and Silvicultural Implications 214
5.3.2.3 Advantages 215
5.3.2.4 Disadvantages/Challenges 215
5.3.2.5 Variants 215
5.3.3 Strip System 218
5.3.3.1 Method 218
5.3.3.2 Ecological and Silvicultural Implications 219
5.3.3.3 Advantages 220
5.3.3.4 Disadvantages/Challenges 220
5.3.3.5 Variants 220
5.3.4 Combined Silvicultural Systems 222
5.3.4.1 Combining Natural and Artificial Regeneration 222
5.3.4.2 Progressive Silvicultural Systems 223
5.3.4.3 Group-Uniform Shelterwood System 223
5.3.4.4 Group-Strip Shelterwood System 223
5.3.5 Regeneration Methods by Species 224
5.3.6 Operational Aspects of Silvicultural Systems 224
5.3.7 Wind, Fire and Herbivores 227
5.3.7.1 Wind 227
5.3.7.2 Fire 229
5.3.7.3 Herbivores 232
5.4 Selection System 232
5.4.1 Method 233
5.4.2 Ecological and Silvicultural Implications 237
5.4.3 Advantages 238
5.4.4 Disadvantages/Challenges 239
5.4.5 Variants 239
5.5 Continuous Two-Storeyed High Forest 240
5.5.1 Method 240
5.5.2 Ecological and Silvicultural Implications 240
5.5.3 Advantages 241
5.5.4 Disadvantages/Challenges 241 6 Demographic Equilibrium and Guidance Modelling 242
6.1 Introduction 242
6.2 History 243
6.3 Static Equilibrium Models 249
6.3.1 Model Theory 249
6.3.1.1 BDq Approach 251
6.3.2 Determining q 253
6.3.2.1 Pretzsch q Factor Model 254
6.3.2.2 Poznaoski-Rutkowska q Factor Model 256
6.3.2.3 Susmel''s q Factor Model 259
6.3.2.4 Sterba Criterion 263
6.4 Dynamic Equilibrium Models 263
6.4.1 Model Theory 263
6.4.2 Ultimate Equilibrium Conditions 265
6.4.3 Modelling Growth, Mortality and n min 266
6.4.3.1 Modelling Growth 267
6.4.3.2 Modelling Mortality 270
6.4.3.3 Modelling n min 271
6.4.4 Example Application of the Schütz Model 272
6.5 Quantifying Deviations 277
6.5.1 Mean Quadratic Difference 278
6.5.2 Modified Absolute Discrepancy 278
6.5.3 Homogeneity Index 278
6.5.4 Application to Artist''s Wood 279
6.6 Critique and Concluding Remarks 279
6.6.1 q Factor Model 280
6.6.2 Schütz Model 281
6.6.3 Marking Guides 282
6.6.4 Adjustment of Allowable Cut 283
6.6.5 Species Representation 285
6.6.6 Identifying Model Parameters 286
6.6.7 Silvicultural Monitoring 286
6.6.8 Software 287 7 Putting it All Together: Implementing CCF for Different Management Purposes 289
7.1 Introduction 289
7.2 Forest Development Types 292
7.3 Specialised CCF Management 300
7.3.1 Timber Production 302
7.3.1.1 Requirements 302
7.3.1.2 Management Strategies 302
7.3.2 Climate-Change Mitigation 305
7.3.2.1 Requirements 305
7.3.2.2 Management Strategies 306
7.3.3 Biodiversity and Conservation 310
7.3.3.1 Requirements 310
7.3.3.2 Management Strategies 311
7.3.3.3 Forest Margins 312
7.3.3.4 Streamside Forest Buffers 317
7.3.4 Water Catchment Management 319
7.3.4.1 Requirements 320
7.3.4.2 Management Strategies 320
7.3.5 Urban and Recreation Forestry 321
7.3.5.1 Requirements 321
7.3.5.2 Management Strategies 322
7.3.6 Sustainable Energy Wood Production 324
7.3.6.1 Requirements 324
7.3.6.2 Management Strategies 326
7.3.7 Forest Cemeteries 326
7.3.7.1 Requirements 327
7.3.7.2 Management Strategies 327
7.3.8 Protection Forests 329 8 Training for CCF 332
8.1 Introduction 332
8.2 Training Requirements 334
8.3 Marteloscopes 336
8.3.1 Origins 337
8.3.2 Plot Design 338
8.3.3 Marking Sheet 340
8.3.4 Marking Exercise 341
8.3.5 Analysis and Feedback 343
8.3.6 Reference Marking 344
8.3.7 Analysis Methods and Strategies 345
8.3.8 Important Results so Far 348
8.3.9 Virtual Marteloscopes 351
8.3.10 Limitations of Marteloscope Training 352 Appendix A Overview of the Most Common Principles of CCF 354 Appendix B Light Demand of Tree Species 356 References 358 Index 387
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